The mambe or ypadú (in uitoto : jíibie ) is a powder that is obtained from roasting, grinding and sifting the leaves of Amazonian coca ( Erythroxylum coca var. Ipadu ) (in uitoto : jibína ) mixing them generally with ashes of Cecropia ( Cecropia peltata or Cecropia sciadophylla , among other varieties) as an alkaline additive. Is prepared by traditional peoples Uitoto and Tucanoans inAmazon basin , in the territory around the borders of Brazil , Colombia and Peru where it is called mambe in the basin of the Putumayo river and ypadú in the basin of the Vaupés river.
Like the acullico in the Andes, the mambeo de coca in the Amazon (in uitoto : dute ) is a traditional way of consuming coca leaves and benefiting from their nutritional properties. However, from an indigenous point of view, the objective of mambear coca is not only to make use of the substance and its effects to take care of the body, it also entails a social function.
From the act of mambear, derives the word mambeadero (in uitoto : jibibiri ) that is used in Colombia to refer to a ritual space, usually in a maloca in the Amazon, to meet, exchange the word and make decisions, while it is made from the use of mambe and ambil.
Mambe coca is prepared as follows
- Roasted : the ripe leaves are toasted to the fire, traditionally in a clay pot
- Ground : the toasted leaves are ground vertically with a pylon .
- Preparation of the ashes : they are usually burned leaves of yarumo (in Colombia, in Peru this tree is known as cetico and in Brazil as embuba ) or stems of quinoa .
- Mixing : mix the powdered leaves with the ashes (10% of the amount of crushed leaf) prepared in the previous step.
- Sieving : the mixture is sifted several times until only the ribs of the leaves remain in the sieve.
To use the mambe, the green powder of the mambe is placed on the cheek mixing with saliva and when dissolving it is ingested. It differs from chewed coca because of its smoked flavor.
- ↑ Jump to:a b Yagüe , White (2014). «Make” edible “the city. The networks as food strategies of the urban Indians of Leticia, Colombian Amazonia » . Colombian Journal of Anthropology (Bogotá) 50 (2): 141-166. ISSN0486-6525 . Retrieved on March 18, 2017 .
- ↑ Plowman 1979: 150.
- ↑ Echeverry and Pereira 2005: 128.
- Jump up ↑ Sánchez , Luisa Fernanda (2011). «Transplant the tree of wisdom: malocas, urban maloqueros and communities of thought in Bogotá» . Cahiers des Amériques latines (Paris) 66 : 131-154. ISSN 1141-7161 . doi : 10.4000 / cal.501 . Retrieved on March 18, 2017 .
- ^ Henman 2005: 274.
- ↑ Jump to:a b Echeverri 2008: 288.
- ↑ Duke , James A .; Aulik , David (1975). «Nutritional value of coca» . Botanical museum leaftles, Harvard University (in English) (Boston) 24 (6): 113-119 . Retrieved on February 22, 2017 .
- ↑ Echeverry and Pereira 2005: 178.
- ↑ Casikar , V .; Mujica , E .; Mongelli , M .; Aliaga , J .; Lopez , N .; Smith , C .; Bartholomew , F. (2010). “Can Coca leaves Contribute to Improving the nutritional status of the Andean population?” . Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry ( Boston: Springer) 25 (3): 311-314. PMC 3001837 . doi : 10.1007 / s12291-010-0059-1 . Retrieved on February 22, 2017 .
- ^ Fontaine , Laurent (2003). «The mambe against money among the Yucuna of the Amazon» . Colombian Journal of Anthropology (Bogotá) 39 : 173-201. ISSN 0486-6525 . Retrieved on March 18, 2017 .
- ↑ Pereira , Edmundo (2011). «Palavra of coca and tobacco as” traditional confecimento “: culture, politics and development among the uitoto-murui do rio Caraparaná (CO)» . Mana (Rio de Janeiro) 17 (1): 69-98. ISSN 0104-9313 . Retrieved on March 18, 2017 .
- ^ “Making Ypadu in Lima with Anthony Henman” . DrugStrat . Retrieved on March 18, 2017 .
- ↑ Echeverri 2008: 196.
- ↑ Echeverry and Pereira 2005: 119.
- ↑ Plowman 1986: 16.
- ^ Davis , Wade (205). The river: explorations and discoveries in the Amazon rainforest (second edition). Bogotá: El Áncora Editores, Fondo de Cultura Económica. p. 269. ISBN 958-38-0093-7 .